Tag Archives: rear axles

Audi e-Tron

latimes
Audi executive Frank Van Meel, center, points out features of the e-Tron concept vehicle, which is slated to make its North American debut at the L.A. Auto Show.

A high-performance sports car with a purely electric drive system

Audi presents the highlight of the IAA 2009: the e-tron, a high-performance sports car with a purely electric drive system. Four motors – two each at the front and rear axles – drive the wheels, making the concept car a true quattro. Producing 230 kW (313 hp) and 4,500 Nm (3,319.03 lb-ft) of torque, the two-seater accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (0 – 62.14 mph) in 4.8 seconds, and from 60 to 120 km/h (37.28 – 74.56 mph) in 4.1 seconds. The lithium-ion battery provides a truly useable energy content of 42.4 kilowatt hours to enable a range of approximately 248 kilometers.

Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost History

In 1906, Rolls-Royce produced four chassis to be shown at the Olympia car show, two existing models, a four cylinder 20hp and a six cylinder 30hp, and two examples of a new car designated the 40/50 hp. The 40/50 hp was so new that the show cars were not fully finished and examples were not provided to the press for testing until March 1907.

The car at first had a new side-valve, six-cylinder, 7036 cc engine (7428 cc from 1910) with the cylinders cast in two units of three cylinders each as opposed to the triple two cylinder units on the earlier six. A three speed transmission was fitted at first with four speed units used from 1913. The seven-bearing crankshaft had full pressure lubrication and the centre main bearing was made specially large to remove vibration, essentially splitting the engine into two three cylinder units. Two spark plugs were fitted to each cylinder with, from 1921, a choice of magneto or coil ignition. The earliest cars had used a trembler coil to produce the spark with a magneto as an optional extra which soon became standard – the instruction was to start the engine on the trembler/battery and then switch to magneto. Continuous development allowed power output to be increased from 48 bhp (36 kW) at 1,250 rpm to 80 bhp (60 kW) at 2,250 rpm. Electric lighting became an option in 1914 and was standardised in 1919. Electric starting was fitted from 1919 along with electric lights to replace the older ones that used acetylene or oil.

The substantial chassis had rigid front and rear axles and leaf springs all round. Early cars only had brakes on the rear wheels operated by a hand lever with a pedal operated transmission brake acting on the propeller shaft. The footbrake system moved to drums on the rear axle in 1913, but from 1923, four-wheel, servo-assisted brakes became optional.

The success of the model led to the company’s dropping the previous range of cars and following a one-model policy until the launch of the Twenty in 1922. In all, a total of 7874 Silver Ghost cars were produced from 1907 to 1926 including 1701 from the American Springfield factory, many of them still running to this day.

After the introduction of the Phantom I in 1925, older 40/50 models were called Silver Ghosts to avoid confusion, but there was only one car given the name “Silver Ghost” – 60551, registered AX-201. The name referred to the car’s ghost-like quietness. For many years after, Rolls-Royce continued with the paranormal theme of naming cars, and the Ghosts remain one of the most evocative symbols of their time.

AX201 at Cat and Fiddle Hill during the Scottish Reliability Trial 1907

1920 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost limousine

Rolls-Royce 15 hp

The Rolls-Royce 15 hp is an early car model produced by Rolls-Royce at their Manchester works and made only in 1905. It was exhibited at the 1904 Paris Motor Salon along with the 10hp, 20hp and engine for the 30hp models but as the new three cylinder engine was not ready the chassis was incomplete.

Three cylinder engines were quite popular in the early years of motoring and one was part of the ambitious programme of the new company. The layout produced less vibration than 2 cylinder engines and was much simpler to make than a six cylinder with its long crankshaft. However, Royce was making his range of engines using a standard two cylinder block, putting two together for the four cylinder and three for the six. The three cylinder engine did not fit in with this production having each of its cylinders cast separately and this is thought to be the reason why only six were made. The engine, which has a bore of 4 in (102 mm) and stroke of 5 in (127 mm) is water-cooled and of 3000 cc capacity with overhead inlet and side exhaust valves. A high tension ignition system using pre-charged accumulators, a trembler and a coil provides the ignition spark. As the lighting supplied uses oil, there is no other drain on the accumulators.The power output is 15 bhp (11 kW) at 1000 rpm. The engine speed is controlled by a governor that can be over-ridden by the pedal controlled accelerator. A three speed gearbox is used, connected to the engine via a short shaft and a leather cone clutch is used.

The car has a top speed of 39 mph (63 km/h). There is a transmission brake fitted behind the gearbox operated by foot pedal and internal expanding drum brakes on the back axle operated by the handbrake lever. Springing is by semi-elliptic leaf springs on both front and rear axles with an additional crossways helper spring on the rear of some of the cars. Artillery type wheels were fitted.

Rolls-Royce did not provide the coachwork. Instead, the cars were sold in chassis form for the customer to arrange his own body supplier, with Barker recommended.

The car, in chassis only form, was priced at GBP500.

Only one car, registered SD 661 is known to survive.

Manufacturer
Rolls-Royce Ltd

Production
1905
6 made

Engine(s)
3000cc 3 cylinder.

Transmission(s)
three speed

Wheelbase
103 in (2616 mm)

Designer
Sir Henry Royce

Rolls-Royce 10 hp

The Rolls-Royce 10 hp was the first car produced by Rolls-Royce and introduced in 1904 at the formation on the company. It was exhibited at the Paris Motor Salon in that year along with 15hp and 20hp cars and engine for the 30hp models. The 10hp was similar to the first car built by Sir Henry Royce originally sold as a “Royce” in 1903. Unlike the Royce car, which had a flat topped radiator, the Rolls-Royce featured one with a triangular top which would appear on all subsequent cars.

The engine is a water-cooled twin cylinder of 1800 cc enlarged to 1995 cc on later cars, with overhead inlet and side exhaust valves, and based on the original Royce engine but with an improved crankshaft. The power output was 12 hp (9 kW) at 1000 rpm. The car has a top speed of 39 mph (63 km/h). There is a transmission brake fitted behind the gearbox operated by foot pedal and internal expanding drum brakes on the back axle operated by the handbrake lever. Springing is by semi-elliptic leaf springs on both front and rear axles. It is a small car with a wheelbase of 75 in (1905 mm) and a track of 48 in (1219 mm).

It was intended to make a run of 20 of the cars but only 16 were made as it was thought that a twin-cylinder engine was not appropriate for the marque. The last 10hp was made in 1906.

Rolls-Royce did not provide the coachwork. Instead, the cars were sold in chassis form for the customer to arrange his own body supplier, with Barker recommended.

Four are believed to survive: the oldest, a 1904 car registered U44, chassis 20154, was sold for GBP3.2 million (approx GBP3.6 million after commission and taxes) to a private collector by Bonham’s auctioneers in December 2007, AX 148 from 1905, chassis 20162, belongs to the UK Science Museum Collection and is usually on display in the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry and SU 13 chassis 20165 from 1907 belongs to Bentley Motors. A fourth car, chassis 20159 is believed to be in a private collection.

Manufacturer
Rolls-Royce Ltd

Production
1904 – 1906
16 made

Engine(s)
1800 later 1995cc

Transmission(s)
three speed

Wheelbase
1905 mm (75 in)

Length
3175 mm (125 in)

Width
1400 mm (55.1 in)

Designer
Sir Henry Royce